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The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 war in Afghanistan. The Taliban forces are fighting against the Afghan government, which is led by President Hamid Karzai. It is also fighting against the US-led International Security Assistance Force. The insurgency has also spread to some degree over the Durand Line border to neighboring Pakistan, in particular the Waziristan region and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Taliban conduct low-intensity warfare against the Afghan National Security Forces and their NATO trainers. Regional countries, particularly Pakistan and Iran, are often accused for funding and supporting the insurgent groups. The leader of the Taliban is Mullah Omar who heads the Quetta Shura. The Haqqani Network, Hezbi Islami, and smaller al Qaeda groups have also joined the insurgency. They often use terrorist attacks in which their victims are usually Afghan civilians. According to reports by the United Nations and others, the insurgents were responsible for 75-80% of civilian casualties between 2009 to 2011. After the May 2011 death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many prominent Afghan figures began being assassinated by the insurgents, including Mohammed Daud Daud, Ahmad Wali Karzai, Jan Mohammad Khan, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, Burhanuddin Rabbani and others. In response to this, major operations were started inside Afghanistan against the insurgents. These are intended to disrupt the network of the insurgents and force them to the negotiation table. (via Freebase)