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Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony, Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Electorate was enlarged to become the capital of the Kingdom of Hanover. From 1868 to 1946 Hanover was the capital of the Prussian Province of Hanover and also of the Hanover administrative region until that was abolished in 2005. It is now the capital of the Land of Lower Saxony. Since 2001 it is part of the Hanover district, which is a municipal body made up from the former district and city of Hanover. With a population of 509,485 the city is a major centre of northern Germany, known for hosting annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and the CeBIT. Every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, and the Oktoberfest Hannover, the second largest Oktoberfest in the world. In 2000, Hanover hosted the world fair Expo 2000. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions, especially for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover is also of national importance because of its universities and medical school, its international airport, and its large zoo. The city is also a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in east-west-direction and north-south-direction. (via Freebase)