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Emergency management can refer to the work of a public authority, a group of professions such as police officers and soldiers, or an interdisciplinary research field. It may also involve preparedness training by private citizens, as by FEMA in the United States. All aspects of emergency management deal with the processes used to protect populations or organizations from the consequences of disasters, wars and acts of terrorism. Emergency management doesn't necessarily avert or eliminate the threats themselves, although the study and prediction of the threats is an important part of the field. The basic level of emergency management are the various kinds of search and rescue activity. 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine and 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan were the most large-scale and cost-intense single instances of emergency management in history. (via Freebase)