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Demilitarisation or demilitarization is the reduction of a nation's army, weapons, or military vehicles to an agreed minimum. Demilitarisation is usually the result of a peace treaty ending a war or a major conflict. A drastic voluntary reduction in size of a victorious army is called demobilization. Demilitarisation was a policy in a number of countries after both world wars. In the aftermath of World War I the United Kingdom greatly reduced its military strength. The resulting position of weakness during the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany was among the causes that led to the policy of appeasement. The conversion of a military or paramilitary force into a civilian one is also called demilitarisation. For example the Italian Polizia di Stato demilitarised in 1981, and the Austrian Gendarmerie merged with the national police, making up a new civilian body. Demilitarisation can also refer to the policies employed by Allied forces duing the occupation of Japan and Germany after World War II. The Japanese and German militaries were re-badged to disassociate them from their recent war history, but were kept active and reinforced to help the allies face the new Soviet threat that had become evident as World War 2 ended, and the Cold War began. (via Freebase)