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Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilian persons killed, injured, or imprisoned by military action. Civilian casualties can be associated with the outcome of any form of military action regardless of whether civilians were targeted directly or not. This differs from collateral damage which specifically applies to only unintentional effects of military action including unintended casualties. Some researchers have included refugees and internally displaced persons in their definition of "civilian casualty". Civilian casualties therefore include victims of atrocities such as the Nanking Massacre committed on a civilian population where hundreds of thousands of men were slaughtered, while girls and women ages ranging from 10 to 70 were systematically raped and/or killed by Japanese soldiers in 1937. Another example is the My Lai Massacre that was committed by United States soldiers during the Vietnam War on hundreds of unarmed Vietnamese civilians. Such military action, which has the sole purpose of inflicting civilian casualties, is illegal under modern rules of war, and may be considered a war crime or crime against humanity. Other kinds of civilian casualties may involve the targeting of civilian populations for military purposes, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which killed over 150,000 people, although both cities contained major military installations and factories which were dispersed within civilian areas. The legality of such action was at the time governed by international law found in the 1907 Hague Regulations on Land Warfare, which states that "the attack or bombardment, by whatever means, of towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings which are undefended is prohibited." Also relevant, were the Hague Rules of Air Warfare of 1922–1923, which states that "an air bombardment is legitimate only when is directed against a military objective, i.e. an objective whereof the total or partial destruction would constitute an obvious military advantage for the belligerent", although the document was never adopted in a legally binding form. The Rome Statute defines that "intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population" to be illegal, but only came into effect on July 1, 2002 and has not been ratified by every country. (via Freebase)